The study seems within the March 7, 2014 edition from the Journal of Biological Chemistry and it was selected because the Paper each week. The Journal’s editorial board people think about this study to stay in the very best 2% of individuals to become released this season when it comes to significance and overall importance.
HD is triggered with a mutation within the human HTT gene that leads to an abnormal expansion and misfolding from the corresponding huntingtin protein. Buck scientists established an unparalleled large-scale interaction network for that huntingtin protein determining 2,141 highly interconnected proteins which have over 3,200 interactions included in this.
The job involved a detailed collaboration between Buck faculty people Robert E. Hughes, PhD, a specialist in neurodegeneration, and Sean D. Mooney, PhD, who leads the Institute’s bioinformatics program. Scientists examined protein interaction data produced at Prolexys Pharmaceutical drugs that recognized greater than 100 huntingtin interacting proteins (Sides) and most 2,000 proteins that communicate with Sides. “The damage triggered through the mutant huntingtin protein radiates out with the cell, just like a pebble dropped inside a pond. Within this situation, water-feature is stuffed with proteins that comprise a lot of the cell,” stated Hughes. “We are in possession of a handle around the detailed structure of the complex web of interactions that triggers global disorder in cells leading to degeneration from the brain.”
Hughes stated Mooney employed sophisticated computational techniques which permitted scientists to adequately evaluate the functions approximately-known as “jobs” from the proteins and systems and just how they could be influenced through the huntingtin mutation. The researchers recognized several paths which were particularly conspicuous within the network. Particularly, HD strains affecting the RhoGTPase signaling path interfered with filopodia, the slender forecasts that cells utilize to direct movement and contact other cells. The information indicate the HD mutation directly affects membrane dynamics, cell attachment and cell motility. Defects during these paths can offer critical clues for the proper way to intervene within the disease with drugs.
Highlighting the collaboration, Hughes stated, “This study helps guide you the synergy between experimental and computational approaches might help solve the character of the complex disease for example HD.” Mooney added, “Understanding and characterizing potentially functional HD protein interactions gives researchers new tools for connecting genomic, genetic, proteomic along with other molecular changes to recognize what causes this deadly disease. Bioinformaticians can also add this dataset for their systems biology toolbox within the mission for interventions that may suppress the advancement of HD.”
Atypical development could be detected as soon as 12 several weeks old one of the brothers and sisters of kids with autism spectrum disorder, research released by scientists using the UC Davis MIND Institute and UCLA finds.
Released online within the Journal from the American Academy of kid and Adolescent Psychiatry, the research discovered that near to 1 / 2 of the more youthful brothers and sisters of kids with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) develop within an atypical fashion, with 17 % developing ASD and the other 28 percent showing delays in other parts of development or behavior.
One of the 28 percent of kids with older brothers and sisters with ASD who demonstrated delays in other parts of development, variations were recognized within their social, communication, cognitive or motor development by 12 several weeks. The most typical deficits were within the social-communication domain, for example extreme shyness with unfamiliar people, ‘abnormal’ amounts of eye-to-eye contact and postponed pointing.
The study indicates that oldsters and physicians ought to be vigilant for such signs and symptoms in early stages one of the brothers and sisters of kids with autism, to be able to make the most of possibilities for specific early intervention to enhance individuals children’s final results.
“Having a young child in the household with autism spectrum disorder implies that subsequent infants born into that family ought to be regularly tested for developmental and behavior problems by their pediatricians,” stated Sally Ozonoff, study lead author and professor of psychiatry and behavior sciences in the UC Davis MIND Institute.
“This research should give parents and physicians hope that clinical signs and symptoms of atypical development could be acquired earlier, to ensure that we are able to, possibly, reduce a few of the difficulties these families frequently face by intervening earlier.”
The research was carried out in 294 infant brothers and sisters of kids with autism spectrum disorder and 116 infant brothers and sisters of kids with typical development. All the study participants were enrolled just before 18 several weeks old. Data around the children’s development was collected at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 several weeks old using a number of standard developmental tests for autism signs and symptoms.
“Good clinical practice indicates that whenever youngsters are showing atypical development they as well as their families should discover details about the kid’s difficulties, clinical reviews when practical and recommendations to local service companies,” Ozonoff stated. “The intervention approaches have to be selected according to each child’s profile of talents and weak points and every family’s goals and focal points.”
Two studies at Mike Houston Condition College examined problems with sexual orientation and intimate partner violence, including its effect on drug abuse and both mental and physical health along with the results of child abuse on its sufferers.
“We desired to observe how qualities from the sufferers might differ according to when they were heterosexual or non-heterosexual,” stated Maria Koeppel, a Ph.D. student in the College of Criminal Justice, who coauthored the studies with Dr. Leana Bouffard. “These research has shown the necessity to have specialized programs created for non-heterosexual sufferers to cope with their victimization additionally to minority stress issues.”
The very first study discovered that homosexuals and bisexuals were much more likely than heterosexuals to become sufferers of intimate partner violence, a danger compounded by individuals who experienced abuse growing up. Within the second study, homosexual or bisexual sufferers of intimate partner violence were more prone to use alcohol and drugs and also have health problems in comparison to heterosexual sufferers.
Homosexuals and bisexuals are sufferers of intimate partner violence more their heterosexual alternatives — at rates of fifty percent and 32 percent correspondingly. If non-heterosexual people are mistreated as children, two-thirds will face abuse as grown ups as a result of intimate partners, based on the CVI report “Child Abuse, Sexual Orientation and Intimate Partner Violence.” The research took it’s origin from an example of seven,216 ladies and 6,893 males in the National Violence Against Women Survey from 1995 and 1996.
“The finding of greater rates of adult IPV victimization for non-heterosexual child abuse sufferers lend support to the requirement for special social welfare programs for non-heterosexual sufferers, programs that are presently seriously missing,” the report stated.
An example of these a course is the la Lgbt Center, which fits with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender animal shelters and legal services and offers training, education and counseling services on domestic violence issues to non-heterosexuals.
The 2nd study, utilizing the same data in the National Violence Against Women Survey, discovered that homosexual and bisexual sufferers of intimate partner violence may abuse alcohol and drugs following their victimization, with 35 % embracing drugs in comparison to 23 percent among heterosexuals. Additionally, non-heterosexual sufferers were at greater chance of excessive drinking and health issues, although heterosexual sufferers were more prone to suffer mental health problems, the research found.
The 2 research has been recognized for publication in academic journals and summaries were launched through the Crime Sufferers’ Institute at Mike Houston Condition College. The Institute, produced through the Texas Legislature, studies the outcome of crime on its sufferers, relatives and society and makes policy strategies for enhancements towards the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems.
Regular cocaine customers have difficulties in feeling empathy for other people plus they exhibit less prosocial behavior. Research in the Psychological Hospital from the College of Zurich now indicates that cocaine customers have social deficits because social contacts are less rewarding on their behalf. Social abilities should therefore learn throughout treating cocaine addiction.
In Europe in addition to worldwide, cocaine may be the second most often used drug after cannabis. Chronic cocaine customers display worse memory performance, concentration difficulties, and attentional deficits but additionally their social abilities may take a hit as previous studies in the Psychological Hospital from the College of Zurich recommended.
These research also says cocaine customers have difficulties to accept mental outlook during others, show less emotional empathy, think it is harder to acknowledge feelings from voices, behave inside a less prosocial manner in social interactions, plus they reported less social contacts. Furthermore, worse emotional empathy was correlated having a more compact social networking.
The researchers now think that social cognitive deficits lead towards the development and perpetuation of cocaine addiction. Within their current analysis released within the Proceedings from the Nas, the researchers Katrin Preller und Boris Quednow, Mind from the Division of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacopsychology in the Psychological Hospital from the College of Zurich, conclude that impaired social interaction abilities of cocaine customers might be described with a blunted reaction to social reward.
Social interaction is less rewarding
The study team shown that cocaine customers perceived became a member of attention — the shared attentional focus of two persons with an object after gaze contact — as less rewarding in comparison to drug-naive healthy controls. Inside a subsequent functional imaging experiment they demonstrated that cocaine customers demonstrated a blunted activation of an essential part from the reward system — the so known as medial orbitofrontal cortex — throughout this basal type of social interaction. Oddly enough, a less strong activation from the medial orbitofrontal cortex throughout social gaze contact seemed to be connected with less social contacts previously days.
Quednow describes: “Cocaine customers see social exchange as less positive and rewarding in comparison to individuals who don’t make use of this stimulant.”
As suggested by Preller and Quednow, such alterations in thinking processes can help to explain why dependent cocaine customers frequently neglect to stop using drugs despite the appearance of severe social effects for example familial problems, lack of buddies or employment. Reduced reward throughout social interactions may also explain the reasons cocaine dependent people loose encouraging social contacts throughout the path of their drug career, which most likely further adds towards the upkeep of addiction.
Considering that social reward is essential for effective psychiatric therapy, Preller and Quednow suggest: “Social abilities, for example empathy, mental perspective taking, and prosocial behavior, ought to be trained throughout treating cocaine dependence to boost the effectiveness and sustainability from the treatment.”
Language of affection: Matching conjunctions, pronouns could spell a match much better than visual appearance and fast cars
Conjunction junction, what’s your function? Connecting up people using similar phrases, based on one Texas Tech College investigator.
Molly Ireland, a going to assistant professor within the Department of Psychology who studies human dialogue, stated individuals who make use of the same types of function words may look for a match.
Function words include personal pronouns for example he, she, it, articles for example “a” “an” or “the” and conjunctions for example and, or, but and nor.
Wealthy Slatcher at Wayne Condition College and James Pennebaker and Paul Eastwick at College of Texas at Austin also took part in the research.
“Conversations between romantic partners constitute probably the most important dialogue in many grown ups’ lives,” Ireland stated. “Romantic associations have a big affect on our overall health and well-being, and i believe that conversation is really a large a part of why is individuals associations succeed or fail at each stage — from first dates to partnerships.”
In research conducted recently, she yet others checked out 40 speed dates between heterosexual males and women and examined the daters’ language using special computer systems.
When examined, scientists discovered an optimistic correlation of function-word similarity with speed-daters’ likelihood of a weight second date and lengthy-term couples’ likelihood of still being together three several weeks following the study, Ireland stated.
Language similarity grew to become a much better predictor of relationship stability when in comparison with other related variables like the perceived similarity with one’s date, perceived relationship quality, and just how many words people spoke to one another throughout each conversation.
“We were surprised at how good language similarity predicted relationship stability far above other variables,” she stated. “People also aren’t excellent at predicting in advance the things they’ll find attractive on the date. So in ways, language forecasts what individuals want inside a partner much better than they are doing themselves.”
Ireland stated the research highlights the significance of language and language style with social behavior, she stated, and content may not be as vital. She along with other scientists think language-style matching reflects focus on one’s conversation partner instead of yourself or even the surroundings and similarity between partners’ thinking styles.
“It’s easy in associations or on dates to pay attention to superficial such things as your personal appearance or even the subjects your lover is speaking about,” she stated. “But the truth is most first dates have pretty similar content. People discuss their preferences – music, hobbies and majors for college kids. None of this really matters though should you’re not having to pay focus on one another or implementing similar mindsets.”
Greater childhood adversity helps you to explain why black males are less healthy than whitened males, plus some of the effect seems to function through childhood adversity’s long lasting affect on the associations black males have as grown ups, according to a different study within the March problem from the Journal of Health insurance and Social Behavior.
“Our findings claim that childhood adversity launches a long term procedure for relationship and health disadvantage for black males,” stated lead author Debra Umberson, a professor of sociology along with a faculty connect within the Population Research Center in the College of Texas at Austin. “I was amazed at the energy of childhood adversity to help racial differences in health for males via its harmful effect on adult associations.”
Umberson stated exposure and vulnerability to worry would be the two primary ways childhood adversity adversely affects associations in their adult years.
“Exposure to childhood adversity could cause stress and result in a sequence of triggers with time that have a cumulative toll on associations,” Umberson stated. “In addition, childhood adversity may trigger an long lasting pattern of mental and physiological vulnerability to worry that undermines associations in their adult years. Past research, including a number of my very own, has proven that bad associations frequently result in worse health.”
“Black males are uncovered to twenty-eight percent more childhood adversity than whitened males and also the negative aftereffect of childhood adversity on the standard of associations in their adult years is three occasions more powerful for black males than whitened males,” Umberson stated. “This path from childhood adversity to reduce quality associations in their adult years describes area of the race disparity in health among males, something which is not recognized in the past research.”
Just like whitened males are more healthy than black males, whitened women are more healthy than black women. However, the research says neither childhood adversity nor the standard of associations in their adult years explain a lot of the racial disparity in health among black and whitened women.
“I was surprised that childhood adversity had this type of minor effect on black women’s health in their adult years, especially because the effect am strong for black males,” Umberson stated. “I think this really is best described by women’s inclination to look for social contact as a result of stress. In most cases, women generally have more close associations and also to share their feelings with other people. This is correct for black and whitened women. Encouraging associations safeguard health.”
Overall, and in line with prior research, Umberson and her co-authors discovered that black women are least healthy, then whitened women, black males, and whitened males.
When it comes to policy implications, Umberson stated the research indicates policymakers should place a greater focus on enhancing American children’s quality of existence. “Creating programs that offer kids with use of stable conditions and taking care of grown ups in the youngest possible age might be particularly significant for black male youth — with health insurance and well-being benefits that serve you for a lifetime,” Umberson stated.
Feeling extreme loneliness can increase a mature person’s likelihood of premature dying by 14 %, based on research by John Cacioppo, professor of psychology in the College of Chicago.
Cacioppo and the co-workers’ work implies that the outcome of loneliness on premature dying is almost as strong because the impact of disadvantaged socioeconomic status, that they found increases the likelihood of dying early by 19 percent. A 2010 meta-analysis demonstrated that loneliness has two times the outcome on early dying along with weight problems, he stated.
Cacioppo, the Tiffany &lifier Margaret Blake Distinguished Service Professor in Psychology in the College, became a member of other students in a seminar on “The Science of Resilient Aging” February. 16 in the American Association for that Growth of Science Annual meeting in Chicago.
The scientists checked out dramatic variations within the rate of loss of both mental and physical health as people age. Cacioppo and co-workers have examined the function of satisfying associations on seniors to build up their resilience, the opportunity to recover after adversity and also be from stresses in existence.
The effects to health are dramatic, as feeling isolated from others can disrupt sleep, elevate bloodstream pressure, increase morning increases within the stress hormone cortisol, alter gene expression in immune cells, while increasing depression minimizing overall subjective well-being, Cacioppo stated inside a talk, “Rewarding Social Connections Promote Effective Aging.”
Cacioppo, among the nation’s leading experts on loneliness, stated seniors can steer clear of the effects of loneliness by remaining in contact with former co-employees, getting involved in family traditions, and discussing good occasions with family and buddies — which gives older grown ups an opportunity to connect others about whom they are concerned and who worry about them.
“Retiring to Florida to reside in a warmer climate among other people isn’t always advisable whether it means you’re disconnected from those who mean probably the most for you,” stated Cacioppo. Population changes make comprehending the role of loneliness and health even more important, he described.
“We are going through a silver tsunami demographically. The infant seniors are reaching retirement. Every day between 2011 and 2030, typically 10,000 individuals will turn 65,” he stated. “People need to consider how you can safeguard themselves from depression, low subjective well-being and early mortality.”
Although many people are pleased to become alone, many people thrive from social situations by which they offer mutual support and develop strong rapport. Evolution urged individuals to interact to outlive and accordingly many people enjoy companionship over being alone.
Research by Cacioppo and the co-workers has recognized three core dimensions to healthy associations — intimate connectedness, which will come from getting someone inside your existence you are feeling states what you are relational connectedness, which will come from getting face-to-face contacts which are mutually rewarding and collective connectedness, which will come from feeling that you simply’re a part of an organization or collective beyond individual existence.
It’s not solitude or physical isolation itself, but instead the subjective feeling of isolation that Cacioppo’s work shows to become so profoundly troublesome. Seniors living alone aren’t necessary lonely when they remain socially engaged and revel in the organization of individuals around them. Some facets of aging, for example blindness and lack of hearing, however, place people in a special risk for becoming isolated and lonely, he stated.
Research through the College of Zurich demonstrates a hyperlink between attractiveness and endurance performance, showing that effective Tour p France bike riders are judged weight loss attractive. This preference for faster riders is especially strong in females who aren’t utilizing a hormonal contraceptive.
In a variety of species, women show obvious preferences if this involves the option of their partner — they decide based on exterior features like antler size or plumage coloration whether men is a good father to her offspring, or if he’ll give them good genes. Erik Postma, an transformative biologist in the College of Zurich, has shown that humans have similar abilities. Faces of riders that carried out better throughout the Tour p France were considered more appealing, showing that people can assess a males’s endurance performance by searching at his face.
Throughout the path of human evolution, hunting success and, by extension, feeding a household relied on the opportunity to chase game for hrs and days. “That’s why endurance performance would be a key transformative factor,” states Postma. Because of the benefits a in good physical shape partner might have provided, the investigator hypothesised that facial attractiveness has developed to signal, amongst others, endurance performance. If correct, then women should find individuals males who succeed when it comes to endurance particularly attractive.
An evaluation of 80 faces and cycling performance
To check this hypothesis, the researcher found his ideal study subjects within the participants from the 2012 Tour p France. “The Tour p France may be the ultimate test if this involves endurance performance,” describes Postma. But although they all are top fit, you will find still considerable variations within their performance. Greater than 800 people, both ladies and males, ranked the portraits of 80 from the riders when it comes to facial attractiveness, not understanding how quickly they were. Subsequently, the transformative biologist measured the performance of every driver based on how lengthy it required these to complete the 3 time tests so the race. Then he related this towards the attractiveness rankings each driver received and located that riders ranked weight loss attractive had also worked out better throughout the race. “Attractive riders are, therefore, faster,” summarized Postma.
The body’s hormones play a huge role
The hyperlink between attractiveness and physical performance was most powerful in females who weren’t utilizing a hormonal contraceptive. They found faces of males who did well within the race to become particularly attractive. By comparison, the preference for fast riders was less pronounced both in women around the pill as well as in males. “These answers are consistent with other studies showing that the body’s hormones play a huge role when assessing potential sexual partners,” states Erik Postma in the Institute of Transformative Biology and Environment Studies.
Columbia College Clinic (CUMC) scientists have determined that the small region from the hippocampus referred to as CA2 is important for social memory, ale a pet to acknowledge another of the identical species. A much better grasp from the purpose of CA2 can be helpful to understand and dealing with disorders indicated by changed social actions, for example autism, schizophrenia, and bpd. The findings, produced in rodents, were released today in the web based edition of Character.
Researchers have lengthy understood the hippocampus—a set of seahorse-formed structures within the brain’s temporal lobes—plays a vital role within our capability to recall the who, what, where, so when in our lives. Recent reports have proven that different subregions from the hippocampus have different functions. For example, the dentate gyrus is crucial for distinguishing between similar conditions, while CA3 allows us to recall a memory from partial cues (e.g., Proust’s famous madeleine). The CA1 region is crucial for those types of memory.
“However, the function of CA2, a comparatively small region from the hippocampus sandwiched between CA3 and CA1, has continued to be largely unknown,” stated senior author Steven A. Siegelbaum, PhD, professor of neuroscience and pharmacology, chair from the Department of Neuroscience, part of the Mortimer B. Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute and Kavli Institute for Brain Science, along with a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. A couple of research has recommended that CA2 might engage in social memory, because this region has an advanced of expression of the receptor for vasopressin, a hormone associated with sexual motivation, connecting, along with other social actions.
To understand more about this area of the hippocampus, the scientists produced a transgenic mouse by which CA2 nerves might be selectively restricted in adult creatures. When the nerves were restricted, the rodents received a number of behavior tests. “The rodents looked really common until we checked out social memory,” stated first author Ernest L. Hitti, an MD-PhD student in Dr. Siegelbaum’s laboratory, who developed the transgenic mouse. “Normally, rodents are naturally interested in a mouse they’ve never met they take more time looking into a new mouse than the usual familiar one. Within our experiment, however, rodents by having an inactivated CA2 region demonstrated no preference for any novel mouse versus a formerly experienced mouse, showing deficiencies in social memory.”
In 2 separate novel-object recognition tests, the CA2-deficient rodents demonstrated an ordinary preference to have an object they’d not formerly experienced, showing the rodents was without a worldwide insufficient curiosity about novelty. In another experiment, the scientists examined if the animals’ lack of ability to create social reminiscences may have related to deficits in olfaction (olfaction), that is crucial for normal social interaction. However, the rodents demonstrated no reduction in capability to discriminate social or non-social smells.
In humans, the significance of the hippocampus for social memory was notoriously highlighted through the situation of Henry Molaison, who’d a lot of his hippocampus removed by surgeons in 1953 so that they can cure severe epilepsy. Molaison (frequently known to as HM within the scientific literature) was subsequently not able to create new reminiscences of individuals. Researchers have seen that lesions restricted to the hippocampus also impair social memory both in rats and humans.
“Because several neuropsychiatric disorders are connected with changed social actions, our findings raise the chance that CA2 disorder may lead to those behavior changes,” stated Dr. Siegelbaum. This possibility is based on findings of the decreased quantity of CA2 inhibitory nerves in people with schizophrenia and bpd and changed vasopressin signaling in autism. Thus, CA2 may give a new target for therapeutic methods to treating social disorders.
Catalan scientists have analyzed buying and growth and development of language in infants based on the temporary coordination of gestures and speech. The outcomes are the initial in showing when and how they get the pattern of coordination backward and forward elements which enables these to communicate very in early stages.
New research completed by two scientists in the Pompeu Fabra College of Barcelona analyses the temporary coordination between gestures and speech in infants throughout the initial phases of language development, in the babbling period until producing their first words.
The outcomes, released within the journal Speech Communication, are the initial to exhibit when and how babies get the coordination between gesture and speech.
“There are actually increasingly more research that demonstrate that study regarding language and human communication cannot be completed just with an analysis of speech,” Núria Esteve Gibert, among the authors, described to SINC.
Actually, in communicative interactions meanings and feelings are sent through speech and non-verbal elements (hands gestures, facial expressions or body position).
“Our analysis signifies that it’s throughout the transition between your babbling period and first words (in other words, prior to the infant is capable of doing creating two became a member of words, one by one), the gestural system and system of speech happen to be carefully linked,” confirmed Esteve Gibert.
Based on the authors, this research demonstrates the vision that speech and body gestures are a couple of elements needed for studying human communication, as you will find increasingly more signs that both modes are developed simultaneously which they’re carefully matched, both semantically and temporarily.
The goal of the pioneering work ended up being to investigate the entire process of acquisition and growth and development of language with regards to the temporary coordination of gestures and speech.
To be able to achieve this, the scientists shot four babies, born into Catalan-speaking families, when they performed using their parents in your own home, from the time the kids were aged 11 to once they arrived at 19 several weeks old.
“These tracks were utilised to research when children began to mix gesture and speech in the same manner as grown ups and when once they mix the 2 modes, the designs of temporary coordination between gesture and speech work,” Gibert ongoing.
As a whole, greater than 4,500 communicative functions created through the babies over the analysed several weeks, through 24 hrs of tracks, were acquired, that have been analyzed from the purpose of look at the gestures as well as the acoustic qualities from the vocalisations created through the children.
“Special importance continues to be provided to the research into the temporary coordination between speech and the action of pointing, as this gesture is vital within the linguistic and cognitive growth and development of language because it signifies the very first communicative gesture that babies can handle understanding and creating,” the expert stated.
Furthermore, it’s noted the correct growth and development of the coordination is carefully associated with the long run linguistic capabilities from the child in a more complex stage.
Mixture of gesture and speech
Throughout the babbling stage babies still produce many gestures without mixing all of them with vocalisations. However, right from the start from the period by which linked with emotions . produce their first words (four words throughout 30 minutes of recording), babies produce nearly all hands gestures in conjunction with vocalisations, just like grown ups.
In addition, on examining the mixtures of gesture and vocalisation the babies produce only at that young age we have seen that the majority of the gestures they mix with vocalisations are deictic gestures (pointing and reaching) having a declarative communicative intention (to tell) greater than a commanding intention (to accomplish this object).
“Already within the first mixtures of gesture with vocalisation, the pattern of temporary coordination of both modes (which consists in synchronising the interval of your time more prominent within the deictic gesture using the interval of your time more prominent within the vocalisation) is much like those of grown ups,” came to the conclusion Esteve Gibert.
- Núria Esteve-Gibert, Pilar Prieto. Infants temporally coordinate gesture-speech combinations before they produce their first words. Speech Communication, 2014 57: 301 DOI: 10.1016/j.specom.2013.06.006
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